Specifically, fewer Zic2Albinism is a genetic disorder associated with a disruption of melanin synthesis, resulting in the loss of pigmentation in the eyes, hair and skin or eyes only.
In the eyes, the perturbation of melanogenesis is specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where it relates to numerous abnormalities of the visual pathways .
As Brd U is incorporated in the DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle of proliferating cells and is then inherited by daughter cells, by coupling Brd U-immunoreactivity together with the immunolabeling for neuronal markers, we provide the general procedures that can be applied to identify adult-born neurons and to characterize their specific phenotypes in different brain regions, under physiological condition or in pathological states. (2017) Detecting Neuronal Differentiation Markers in Newborn Cells of the Adult Brain.
(a,b) Compared to control, P21 h GFAP-cre; H1047R mutants had domed foreheads.
In this chapter, we describe the procedures aimed to investigate adult neurogenesis in the murine brain.
Specifically, we explain how to inject into animals exogenous markers of proliferation (i.e., Brd U) and prepare brain tissues to perform immunofluorescence reactions for neuronal markers in combination with Brd U staining.
(b) Genetic strategy for tet-activated H1047R transgenic mice (Liu et al., 2011): the human H1047R mutation was activated in the combined presence of cre recombinase and doxycycline (dox).Here, using Zic2 as a marker of ipsilateral RGCs, Islet2 as a marker of contralateral RGCs, and birthdating, we investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of RGC production as they relate to the phenotype of diminished ipsilateral RGC number in the albino retina.) RGCs, resulting in fewer RGCs in the VT retina at this time point.Controls for e,f and g are of genotypes Pik3ca E545K, h GFAP-cre, Nestin-cre and Nestin-cre ER.(h) MRI volumetric analyses of mutant and corresponding control brains.